M.C. Escher 'Drawing hands'
'I have a desire to buy a house, but I do not have the opportunity.
I have the opportunity to buy a goat, but I have no desire.
So let's drink to our desires
Matched with our capabilities!
Toast from the soviet movie "Prisoner of the Caucasus"
Perhaps the reader will be interested to get acquainted with the project The Industrial Ontologies Foundry Proof-of-Concept, which I discovered in the process of working on this article. It is designed to support the computerization of production according to the current industry 4.0 trend. The proposed Ontology of Desires implies the inclusion of similar approaches in its composition, but pursues broader goals:
Prompt trend detection
For example, the increased desire to Normalize Level of:
- "Life Support / Water" in the context of a person can mean the early stage of diabetes, and in the context of a residential building - a breakthrough of the centralized water supply pipe.
- "Life Support / Energy" in the context of a person can mean an "inexplicable" awakening of appetite for the majority of the population, and in the context of a car - the need to replace spark plugs or find a gas station that does not dilute gasoline.
- "Awareness / Email" in the context of a person can mean the beginning of stress or psychological dependence on the Internet, and in the context of the meteorological service - the failure of the GSM module of the remote temperature sensor, etc.
Note that in the first case, the amount of fluid in the human body can be quite normal. Similarly, the desire for an electronic device to "Normalize Comfort Level / Temperature" can mean the need to move it into the shadow, and not the failure of the cooling fan. From the above examples, it follows that the standard method of identifying a problem by interrogating the state of sensors (water, energy, temperature) is not always sufficient. On the other hand, the proposed approach to responding to the desires of entities standardizes, simplifies and cheapens the solution to the problem of determining trends.
The ontology of Desires should of course be based on QUDT and other well-known domain-independent ontologies. However, in my opinion, the direct application of domain-specific ontologies in this context will lead to an unjustified complication of the final descriptors. After all, we, as a minimum, have to expand them in terms of supporting validation and restricting access to data, which ultimately can alienate the average user with its complexity.
The above toast partially describes the basic idea of the proposed ontology as a path to the fulfillment of the Desire through the unity and interaction of opposites. I used the word "interaction" instead of Hegelian, the word "struggle" generally accepted in this context, to which the illustration in the form of the Yin-Yang symbol is more suitable. Demonstrating the extreme degree of opposites through the contrast of colors - black Yin and white Yang, this symbol deliberately suggests an arbitrator who appointed them the roles of good-bad, boss-subordinate, etc. However, to base the description of entities on the basis of rigidly defined judgments about taxonomy, purpose, usefulness or harm of properties may, in general, lead to errors and logical deadlock. A bruised little finger may temporarily become the main thing of all the other organs, thoughts and desires ...
Simplification and standardization of computer programs
The soul shudders when you read the decoding of the moments of time 05:41:46 and 05:43:20 a desperate struggle of pilots with cold soulless automatics. Each line of NATOPS is written in blood and does not allow for misunderstandings. This standard contains the well-established terminology that has been developed over decades, and is a detailed guide to the crew’s action in any emergency situation. In fact, this is not a clearly formalized descriptor of a computer program, which cannot be changed, but can be supplemented to support aircraft with specific aerodynamics. But does this mean that in this case a new version of top-level software should be released, which can interpret the situation in its own way and prohibit the pilot from adjusting its actions? Isn't it easier and more reliable to follow the well-known principle of E. Dijkstra - a fixed algorithm for the program and changing data, only?
At the end of the lecture Leslie Lambert "Thinking Above the Code" one of the viewers claims that 95% of programmers do not write programs this way. I belong to the remaining 5% and approach the programming of even the simplest MCUs in terms of specifications, although I have never applied TLA+. In this case, the code turns out to be the minimum size, is relatively constant for a wide range of applications, and boils down to processing specifications. I believe that such an approach will soon force out other programming methods, so, for example, I have set the task that the debugged code of the online store program does not require changes in the future, for any complexity of the product descriptor.
Protection of information
Being, according to the apt expression of Roxanne Meadows in the "state of cannibals in Cadillac", we are moving in a wide stride towards IoT. At the same time, today there is no active by default a 100% protection not only of the automatic device, but also of the ordinary user from compromise and/or psychological influence by:
- hacking email or social network account with the subsequent creating of fake messages
- URL or DNS spoofing to redirect the user to false network resources
- creating false GSM mobile stations that can be used not only for eavesdropping, but also dynamic pranking
- applications of visual and acoustic steganography. There is also no standard mechanism for protection against steganography in fonts and even in ordinary text files, which for "some reason" are replete with grammatical errors.
Even worse, when it comes to the possibility of dynamic adaptive compromise, which cannot be prevented, due to errors in the exchange protocols or their implementation. Similar to this, and probably others, yet unknown gaps, can destroy the reputation of any person, because almost does not giving him a chance to prove the substitution. There are many other variations of actions similar to those listed above and they all have one property - the impossibility of confidently identifying a criminal. After all, even someone initiated an automated attack, he has a name, a surname, etc.
Let us consider an example of the frequent desire to “Normalize the Level of Comfort / Pampers” in the context of a young person who does not work anywhere. It does not necessarily mean progressive diarrhea, but it may signal that he spends a lot of time, hiding in a car with black glasses, doing remote eavesdropping, reading information from other people's computers and other abominations listed above. An elementary analysis of a sample of a multitude of such innocuous desires, together with the accompanying data, can provide additional information about the level of industrial espionage and help make a conclusion about the quality of protection of citizens and businesses. As a result, these data can actually affect the success of the offer of international cooperation in the field of IT - outsourcing, the creation of joint IT-incubators, etc.
Identification is much wider than authentication and is designed to protect the personal data of any user, even a suspect of unlawful actions, right up to the moment of formal accusation in court. Actual information may only be available to authorized persons. For example, devices for printing and displaying video must retouch the face, voice should be played in a distorted form, etc.
In general, I do not see yet the possibility of protecting an ordinary user from multi-vector hard espionage and psychological impact. I hope for quantum computers, due to their natural dualism, although the question of protecting the means for manually entering information still remains relevant. However, the proposed Ontology of Desires is intended to standardize ways to protect entities interaction at all stages and levels of life (from person to simplest MCU). Among others, it will be based on IBM Identity Mixer principles.
Concretization of responsibilities and exclusion of intermediaries
'The Guarantor can, on the basis of the principle of “alienating the developer from his product”, guarantee the Customer that he will always find a support team for this project, for example, in the event that the Contractor refuses to support his own implementation or the implementation of his own software product.'
In this article, the author offers to consider the concept of "IT greenhouses of a new type of social entrepreneurship," and introduces the Intermediary to the list of product manufacturers, as a mandatory link between the Customer and the Contractor. The idea of alienation of the Contractor from the means of production and the results of their labor is not new. This can be achieved in different ways, and I have already cited one modern example.
In my youth, I met a supervisor who had about 200 copyright certificates in the field of technology, but did not understand even the principle of operation of some of them. I dare to note that an understanding of the real sources and causes of such a high scientific fecundity can discourage young people from wanting to invent. It will be more pleasant for students, for whose free labor the author of the mentioned article basically relies on, if according to the results of their work they can independently pay for the treatment of their sick mother, or buy her a beautiful gift. In my student youth, this was achieved by hard physical work instead of vacation in a summer time, but this was in the last century ...
The Ontology of Desires is intended to support the "Common Business" project (hereinafter referred to as CB) and aims to create direct links between the Customer and the Contractor. And the community is at the same time the Customer, the Contractor, the Owner, the Protector of Rights and the Keeper of the documentation for the manufacture of any product, created by its members. Third-party organizations can only ask CB to contribute development to their plans and reserve the right to reward them for the idea and to get first the finished product.
At the same time, the authorship and degree of participation in the creation of any part of the final product must be specified in full. Developers and authors should be encouraged according to the CB rules even if they leave the community. Such an approach would automatically protect, for example, the noble Tesla, who gave electricity to the world, from poverty and oblivion in the last years of his life. If CB need to search for a designer for a new product, a clear idea of the level of knowledge and their practical application among the possible Executors should be achieved by a simple information request in one click.
The draft CB Charter should be published for discussion and a separate article will be devoted to this.
Bob in Las Vegas
The next article will be devoted to the substantiation of the Ontology of Desires idea and the selection of data for it axioms and properties. But while it is not, I will continue the comic story about Bob, who is in the inept embraces of modern technology, separated by selfish competition. When the Descriptor of Ontology will be completed, we'll again look at this story, but from the point of view of its application in this context.
We remember that Bob met a new girlfriend and now offered her to spend a weekend in Las Vegas, but unexpected business detained him and she got there a day earlier. Although age does not allow Bob to climb by drainpipes and visit his beloved through the windows, he retained youthful sentimentality and loves originality. At the airport of Las Vegas recently appeared package delivery service by drones to anywhere in the city in 15 minutes. Kicking his lips, he wrote his beloved fiery note, put a bunch of violets into the package and went to choose a car for hire. After 10 minutes, the drone was on the roof of the hotel and dropped the parcel into the open box of the robot porter. It had a terrific intellect, knew how to read text written by hand, could lift a load of up to 100 kg and knew all the nooks of the hotel from the roof to the basement. However, in order to maintain all the possibilities mentioned, it needed a lot of energy and right now it was time of battery recharge. It took only 20 minutes, but when he drove to the elevator doors, Bob was already at the hotel parking lot.
'CoBot is capable of navigating on and between multiple floors. To navigate between floors, CoBot pro-actively asks for human assistance [Rosenthal and Veloso, 2012] to press the elevator buttons.'
Localization and Navigation of the CoBots Over Long-term Deployments (part 6. Navigation)
Note: I am sure that the respected developers of the CoBot robot will correctly understand the comic context, in which the quote is mentioned.
The robot had to go down only one floor, but in 10 minutes no one came to the elevator. It was not interested in the tip for the speed of delivery and waited for a passerby, while maintaining the "iron" peace of mind. And at this time, old Bob stood in the doorway of the room and confusedly repeated the girlfriend in the arms of a stranger: "I knew that! You do not like violets ..."
It is clear that before fall in love with another young beauty, Bob should look into his passport for the date of birth. But anyway, how would you arrange the interaction of IT entities of letter delivery, so that the frivolous Bob will not completely lose the ability to smile?