- No, Alice, this is not your favorite movie. "Desire" is a new class of devices of the "Majordomo" family that does not require configuration and is certified to access certain private information. It only needs to be connected to the Internet, the ID of the group that it should serve, as well as its problems and desires. You know - I am far from the best cook, parents get bored and often get sick, the son has a bad score at school. But now !!! Grandfather crosses whisky and drinks only soda. Grandma Sarah has a patient listener to her endless recipe of Fish-Fish. The husband "accomplishes the feat" not once in a two weeks, but every other day. And generally speaking...
He awoke from intense pain. There was an abrasion on forehead, deep night outside the window, and a line was lit on the computer screen:
"Step 17. To set the minutes, hold the button CTRL anddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd"
Alexander Prokofiev "Technorium" (notes on stickers)
In any project that has a human interaction interface, I follow a simple rule - first, work out the frontend in details. Then there will be no problems with the structure and format of the data source. But in this case, I'll start with the backend, since even creating a universal UI template of an online store descriptor involves abstract thinking about them.
Modern rudimentary and sometimes inexplicable achievements of Artificial Intelligence, as well as its support hardware, have caused a short note, which I cited as an epigraph. The title contains the words that end the fascinating narrative of Jeff Hawkin, the founder of many years of research in the field of Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM). I recommend to see the lecture in its entirety, but because the subject of this article directly concerns ontology and taxonomy, I refer to the moment where it is stated that the principles of HTM are excellent for solving classification problems. The areas of progress mentioned by J. Hawking caused a joking association with the picture at the beginning of the article, not so hilarious reflections on the future limitations of our creativity, and
Memories of how it started
The scheme of my diploma was based on the electronic components of Logic-T, where the RS-trigger weighed ~ 100 grams and measured the size of a pack of cigarettes. After graduation in 1979, I was left as a young specialist at the Welding Equipment Department at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute with a salary of ~ $100. Once on the beach, the Creator presented me an electronic circuit for implementing the idea of an "electromagnetic spoon" by Professor V.P. Chernysh, which resulted in the USSR Authorized Certificate No. 923764 - "Device for electromagnetic stirring of a weld pool melt" (priority of the invention is July 22, 1980). I was implementing it alone in the harsh December frosts at a plant, located on the banks of the Amur River, where important Products for the country were made. My award was a prize of ~ $50 and a ban on foreign tourism for 5 years. In those days, we all together built the country with hope and did not expect such 'banquets' in the future ...
The following figure shows the scheme of counter block from that device. At that time, the chips were new, and this was my first experience with them.
After 40 years, such advances in circuitry cause a smile, modern electronics are becoming more formalized, and its development in about next 7 years will be successfully produced by robots. Therefore, progressive countries are already seriously discussing Universal Basic Income. I think the process will end when the ontology of our environment will be compiled (hopefully, not the world). Perhaps the projects like proposed 'DIY Vavoom' will help us save the most important thing:
'We are facing the inevitability of justifying ourselves with creativity, and not justifying our creativity. In the creative act there must be an inner self-justification, and its every external justification is powerless and humiliating. Man justifies himself to the Creator not only by redemption, but also by creativity.'
N.A. Berdyaev 'The meaning of creativity (the experience of justifying a person)'
Development Support Means
The musical work can be described with the help of 7 notes. The human genome - with the help of 4 characters ATGC, although there is a proposal to expand the list of characters ZPSB. I will also try to use the minimum set of tools for solving the problem, bearing in mind the requirement announced in the previous article - the formats of product descriptors of any complexity for all stages of the product’s life (Search, Development, Production, Proposal and Recycling) should be in harmony with each other.
In the overwhelming majority of cases, modern programming is an endless repetition of long-known patterns, but with the help of different frameworks and in different languages, the number of which is growing like yeast. The merger of companies and groups of independent developers allows them to standardize methods and ultimately make projects simpler and more protected from errors. See, for example, how ESPHome offers users to create their own firmware for Wi-Fi controllers, setting up ready to use profiles. I have a similar approach, but using simple Descriptors of the Finite State Machine, which I will discuss in one of the following publications of this series of articles.
Errors in the programs, especially concerned to the expected widespread implementation of IoT, become very expensive and the process of them identifying is so complicated, that in the near future it may not be possible for programmers. Therefore, for example, the Platform Security Architecture and the ELISA Project have a more thorough approach to creating standard certified elements, processes and tools.
Following these trends, I will try to avoid time-consuming approaches and discard the programming of the backend in the conventional sense. In the ancient Mahabharata it is said about the creation of the world that there were Brahmins first, then - Truth, etc. The Gospel of John begins with the words 'In the beginning was the Word'. Based on this ancient wisdom, I will start with ontology.
Search for a standard base ontology
"God, - I thought, - had to say just one word that contained the whole fullness of being. None of the words he uttered may be less significant than the whole universe or at least than the whole set of times. Pitiful and boastful human words - such as 'all', 'world', 'universe' - these are just shadows and similarities of a single sound, equal to the whole adverb and everything it contains".
Jorge Borges "Letters of God"
We can create descriptors for products and services by own rules. But by standardizing the semantics of the web in the form of ontologies, we can get an additional opportunity to attract visitors who know nothing about our resource. In addition, current trends are increasingly demanding that information be understandable to machines, in particular, to search engines. Problem is that there is already a huge amount of ontologies. The following screenshot from The Linked Open Data Cloud website (https://lod-cloud.net) presents a graph containing more than 1200 data sets:
Ontologies are usually divided into 3 levels:
- domain (application level)
This development refers to the level of the application and I spent many days wondering what ontology to set as a basis. At first, it seemed simple - use a set of existing ones. On the other hand, the participants in the 'Coordinated Holistic Alignment of Manufacturing Processes' (CHAMP) project rightly claim that there is a lack of universal terminology for describing products and processes. Consider some widely known ontologies:
At some point in the study of the BFO I had an association with the language of the Piraha tribe, which contains only 7 consonants and 3 vowels, but is very complex with outward simplicity. Similarly the BFO - you need hardly rebuild own thinking system in order to properly apply it. In any case, the top level BFO is very attractive by its brevity. Let's look at the ontology of the medium level, created on its basis:
CommonCoreOntologies: 1430 classes, 13112 axioms (version 1.1)
And finally, another medium level ontology, which I found after describing the product life stages in my previous article. It was developed based on BFO and CommonCoreOntologies specifically to support the product at all stages of its life:
AllCHAMPAontology: 2136 classes, 17300 axioms
The amount of information is impressive! Although these ontologies have a modular structure and only the necessary parts can be used. However, you'll spend a lot of time studying them in order to select only the necessary. And this is still the middle level and ontologies of the application level, in turn, can add not less information. In general, as David Bowie sang - “welcome to my nightmare” ...
I admit, it was difficult for me to abandon the idea of using the CHAMP ontology, although it is quite voluminous and the project is not yet complete. But, as we already know, in its basis lies the BFO, paragraph 2.1 of the specification of which begins with the words:
"An entity is anything that exists."
I specifically highlighted in bold the keyword. Thus, the user, in addition to the quite high level of entry threshold in the material, will also face an explicitly announced restriction in supporting the development of non-existing products. Moreover, in my opinion, laid down in BFO the explicit separation of entities into material and non-material ('material entity' and 'immaterial entity') also greatly complicates the ontology and understanding of the rules of its application. If the robot has a video camera, but the temperature sensor has broken and it does not know about it, then it can take a sleeping 'material' cat for its 'immaterial' image on the pillow. Those, the level of our knowledge, and conclusions based on it, are limited by our current capabilities. The awakened cat will again become material for such a robot, if it has the intelligence to visually determine the movement of the object.
If we declare any entity a priori material, then seriously simplify BFO. For example, a stone lying on a cliff, by the way, consisting as everything around of moving atoms, can be determined as an object, that wants to rest. Thus, the water washed away by the cliff, fulfills its desire to get pleasure by moving to a more stable point of rest through the action of gravity.
So, after several rounds of searching for an easy to understand, compact and universal standard base ontology, I again found myself at the starting point ...
IoT - Internet of Tasks or Internet of Desires
'If I'll feel good, I will drive you so fast that you will be fine too ...'
From the movie 'Mimino'
What is the monkey looking for, trying to get food out of the box? Was the purpose of her search a stick, with which she tries to hook a banana through a hole in a box? Did the girlfriend of Alice, whom I mentioned in the epigraph looking for medicines for parents? Was Jackie Chan looking for a file in the movie "Who am I?", in order to make a needle for injection from the nipple. No, they all were looking for a means of solving the problem. For the monkey, it was a stick that fit in size, for Alice's girlfriend - a kind know-it-all "Desire", and Jackie simply took off the wheel, started the engine and sharpened the needle on the rotating brake disc. Those, in general, we are not looking for specific objects, which in this particular situation may not be available, or even not exist in nature. Moreover, the objects themselves do not represent any value. Put a rich man with all his gold and even a servant on an uninhabited island and within a month he becomes sad because of the lack of viewers how he enjoys his wealth.
In general, we are looking for means to satisfy our desires or immediate needs. But in order not to discord with the well-established term IoT, I used the word Task. Using this approach to creating a base level ontology, we will no longer need to 'break a head' thinking about practical usability of dualism of Ontological Materialism and Ontological Idealism. It is just important in our desires not to go beyond the limits of decency and own primary good purpose.
'This nation has long been ... forgot all worries, and Rome, that once
Distributed everything: the legions, and the authorities, and the bunch of lictors,
Now restrained and only two things are and restlessly dreaming:
Decimus Junius Juvenal "The 10th Satire"
Unlike many things around us, desires have always existed and their set is relatively constant. In addition, due to the progress they are much smaller, compared with the constantly increasing the number of means, by which they realized. For example, the desire to move to another country before was carried out on foot, on a horse, a donkey, sled dogs or a camel. Now there is a scooter, a bicycle, various auto- and moto-, up to aircraft. Those, the basic ontology of desires is fairly stable, the middle layer is probably not needed at all, and only ontologies of applications that reflect the interaction of desires through the means of their implementation can be relatively large.
Now I'm taking a time out due to the complexity of developing the proposed idea of the Internet of Desires ontology, and hope that the continuation will came up earlier, than the moment when I can no longer save money on this website support.